A number of other factors were at work. A large factor was the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in Europeans had previously purchased spices and Oriental goods there, but had no desire to trade with Islamic "infidels.
Humanism — a history of the hijacked Credo of our species Jul 3rd, By admin Category: Term freely applied to a variety of beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm.
Most frequently, however, the term is used with reference to a system of education and mode of inquiry that developed in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and England.
But humanism sought its own philosophical bases in far earlier times and, moreover, continued to exert some of its power long after the end of the Renaissance.
Renaissance humanism in all its forms defined itself in its straining toward this ideal. Humanitas meant the development of human virtue, in all its forms, to its fullest extent.
Just as action without insight was held to be aimless and barbaric, insight without action was rejected as barren and imperfect. Humanitas called for a fine balance of action and contemplation, a balance born not of compromise but of complementarity.
The goal of such fulfilled and balanced virtue was political, in the broadest sense of the word. The purview of Renaissance humanism included not only the education of the young but also the guidance of adults including rulers via philosophical poetry and strategic rhetoric.
It included not only realistic social criticism but also utopian hypotheses, not only painstaking reassessments of history but also bold reshapings of the future.
Humanism had an evangelical dimension: Greek and Roman thought, available in a flood of rediscovered or newly translated manuscripts, provided humanism with much of its basic structure and method.
Compared with the typical productions of medieval Christianity, these pagan works had a fresh, radical, almost avant-garde tonality. Indeed, recovering the classics was to humanism tantamount to recovering reality. Classical philosophy, rhetoric, and history were seen as models of proper method—efforts to come to terms, systematically and without preconceptions of any kind, with perceived experience.
Moreover, Classical thought considered ethics qua ethics, politics qua politics: Classical virtue, in examples of which the literature abounded, was not an abstract essence but a quality that could be tested in the forum or on the battlefield.
Finally, classical literature was rich in eloquence. In particular since humanists were normally better at Latin than they were at GreekCicero was considered to be the pattern of refined and copious discourse. In eloquence humanists found far more than an exclusively aesthetic quality.
As an effective means of moving leaders or fellow citizens toward one political course or another, eloquence was akin to pure power.
Humanists cultivated rhetoric, consequently, as the medium through which all other virtues could be communicated and fulfilled. Of these excepting the historical movement described above there are three basic types: Accepting the notion that Renaissance humanism was simply a return to the Classics, some historians and philologists have reasoned that Classical revivals occurring anywhere in history should be called humanistic.
Thus, it is customary to refer to scholars in these fields as humanists and to their activities as humanistic.
Humanism and related terms are frequently applied to modern doctrines and techniques that are based on the centrality of human experience. Not only is such a large assortment of definitions confusing, but the definitions themselves are often redundant or impertinent.
To say that professors in the many disciplines known as the humanities are humanists is to compound vagueness with vagueness, for these disciplines have long since ceased to have or even aspire to a common rationale. For obvious reasons, however, it is confusing to apply this word to Classical literature.
Basic principles and attitudes Underlying the early expressions of humanism were principles and attitudes that gave the movement a unique character and would shape its future development. Classicism Early humanists returned to the classics less with nostalgia or awe than with a sense of deep familiarity, an impression of having been brought newly into contact with expressions of an intrinsic and permanent human reality.
Evenings I return home and enter my study; and at its entrance I take off my everyday clothes, full of mud and dust, and don royal and courtly garments; decorously reattired, I enter into the ancient sessions of ancient men.
Received amicably by them, I partake of such food as is mine only and for which I was born. There, without shame, I speak with them and ask them about the reason for their actions; and they in their humanity respond to me. Machiavelli implies that he shared with the ancients a sovereign wisdom of human affairs.
He also describes that theory of reading as an active, and even aggressive, pursuit that was common among humanists.
Possessing a text and understanding its words were not enough; analytic ability and a questioning attitude were necessary before a reader could truly enter the councils of the great.
These councils, moreover, were not merely serious and ennobling; they held secrets available only to the astute, secrets the knowledge of which could transform life from a chaotic miscellany into a crucially heroic experience.
Classical thought offered insight into the heart of things.Welcome to Energy Factor, an online resource covering the cutting-edge technology and innovations that are helping to meet tomorrow’s energy needs.
News; What’s behind the U.S. manufacturing renaissance? Suzanne McCarron. ExxonMobil’s collegiate collaboration Suzanne McCarron. Credit natural gas for falling emissions. View Test Prep - Decline of the Church during the alphabetnyc.com from HUMANITIES at Miami Dade College, Miami.
Growth of Nation-States contributed to decline in influence of Christian Church. Renaissance humanism influenced most of Europe.
The renaissance de-emphasized "universals" placing a greater emphasis on "particulars." The attention paid the individual and his ability to think and reason independently illustrates the emphasis on particulars.
Apr 12, · The surprising factors behind Asia's renaissance With a bright future ahead of it, Asia is increasingly rediscovering its past.
To fully understand Asia's rise, we must come to grips with the. Behind the Elizabethan vogue for pastoral poetry lies the fact of the prosperity of the enclosing sheep farmer, who sought to increase pasture at the expense of the peasantry. Tudor platitudes about order and degree could neither combat nor survive the challenge posed to rank by these arrivistes.
by the Renaissance, they will reply that it was the revolution effected in architecture, painting, and sculpture by the recovery of antique monuments. Students of literature, philosophy, and theology see in the Renaissance that.