See Article History Alternative Title: Henrik Johan Ibsen Henrik Ibsen, in full Henrik Johan Ibsen, born March 20,SkienNorway—died May 23,Kristiania [formerly Christiania; now Oslo]major Norwegian playwright of the late 19th century who introduced to the European stage a new order of moral analysis that was placed against a severely realistic middle-class background and developed with economy of action, penetrating dialogueand rigorous thought. Early life Ibsen was born at Skien, a small lumbering town of southern Norway. His father was a respected general merchant in the community untilwhen he suffered the permanent disgrace of going bankrupt.
As he wrote in an letter to critic and scholar Georg Brandes"my parents were members on both sides of the most respected families in Skien", explaining that he was closely related with "just about all the patrician families who then dominated the place and its surroundings", mentioning the families PausPlesnervon der LippeCappelen and Blom.
His marriage to Marichen Altenburg, a daughter of ship-owner Johan Andreas Altenburg — and Hedevig Christine Paus —was a successful match. Hedvig Paus must have been well known to the young dramatist, for she lived until She sacrificed herself time and time again.
There was no bitterness or reproach in her. Ibsen would both model and name characters in his plays after his own family. A central theme in Ibsen's plays is the portrayal of suffering women, echoing his mother Marichen Altenburg ; Ibsen's sympathy with women would eventually find significant expression with their portrayal in dramas such as A Doll's House and Rosmersholm.
He moved to the small town of Grimstad to become an apprentice pharmacist and began writing plays. Ibsen went to Christiania later renamed Kristiania and then Oslo intending to matriculate at the university.
He soon rejected the idea his earlier attempts at entering university were blocked as he did not pass all his entrance examspreferring to commit himself to writing. His first play, the tragedy Catilinawas published under the pseudonym "Brynjolf Bjarme", when he was only 22, but it was not performed.
His first play to be staged, The Burial Moundreceived little attention. Still, Ibsen was determined to be a playwright, although the numerous plays he wrote in the following years remained unsuccessful.
In Ibsen's youth, Wergeland was the most acclaimed, and by far the most read, Norwegian poet and playwright. Life and writings[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message He spent the next several years employed at Det norske Theater Bergenwhere he was involved in the production of more than plays as a writer, director, and producer.
During this period, he published five new, though largely unremarkable, plays. Despite Ibsen's failure to achieve success as a playwright, he gained a great deal of practical experience at the Norwegian Theater, experience that was to prove valuable when he continued writing.
Ibsen returned to Christiania in to become the creative director of the Christiania Theatre. He married Suzannah Thoresen on 18 June and she gave birth to their only child Sigurd on 23 December The couple lived in very poor financial circumstances and Ibsen became very disenchanted with life in Norway.
Inhe left Christiania and went to Sorrento in Italy in self-imposed exile. He didn't return to his native land for the next 27 years, and when he returned to it he was a noted, but controversial, playwright.
His next play, Brandbrought him the critical acclaim he sought, along with a measure of financial success, as did the following play, Peer Gyntto which Edvard Grieg famously composed incidental music and songs. Ibsen's next play Peer Gynt was consciously informed by Kierkegaard.
His next series of plays are often considered his Golden Age, when he entered the height of his power and influence, becoming the center of dramatic controversy across Europe. Although Ibsen himself always looked back on this play as the cornerstone of his entire works, very few shared his opinion, and his next works would be much more acclaimed.
Ibsen moved to Munich in and began work on his first contemporary realist drama The Pillars of Societyfirst published and performed in This play is a scathing criticism of the marital roles accepted by men and women which characterized Ibsen's society.
Ghosts followed inanother scathing commentary on the morality of Ibsen's society, in which a widow reveals to her pastor that she had hidden the evils of her marriage for its duration. But his philandering continued right up until his death, and his vices are passed on to their son in the form of syphilis.
The mention of venereal disease alone was scandalous, but to show how it could poison a respectable family was considered intolerable.
In earlier plays, controversial elements were important and even pivotal components of the action, but they were on the small scale of individual households. In An Enemy, controversy became the primary focus, and the antagonist was the entire community.
One primary message of the play is that the individual, who stands alone, is more often "right" than the mass of people, who are portrayed as ignorant and sheeplike.
Contemporary society's belief was that the community was a noble institution that could be trusted, a notion Ibsen challenged.
In An Enemy of the People, Ibsen chastised not only the conservatism of society, but also the liberalism of the time. He illustrated how people on both sides of the social spectrum could be equally self-serving.
An Enemy of the People was written as a response to the people who had rejected his previous work, Ghosts. The plot of the play is a veiled look at the way people reacted to the plot of Ghosts.Henrik Ibsen One of the world’s most influential playwrights and poets has left a huge legacy on Norwegian culture.
He wrote modern, realistic dramas, and many of his later works were ahead of the curve for the development of modernist and expressionist theatre. Full text of "Henrik Ibsen: The Father of Modern Drama" See other formats. Henrik Ibsen was born on March 20, , in Skien, Norway.
In , he was exiled to Italy, where he wrote the tragedy alphabetnyc.com: Mar 20, Henrik Ibsen () was a Norwegian dramatist and poet, who has often been called the father of modern drama. In his mature works Ibsen used naturalistic settings and dialogue to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of middle-class life.
By experimenting with self-discovery and inner revelation, Henrik Ibsen has written the dramatic and ironic work “A Doll’s House”.
A gold mine of imagery, Ibsen foreshadows his story with macaroons, syphilis, and Christmas trees. Most prevalent of this author’s sneaky symbolism is one character’s description of another.
Henrik Ibsen () was a Norwegian dramatist and poet, who has often been called the father of modern drama. In his mature works Ibsen used naturalistic settings and dialogue to expose the corruption and hypocrisy of middle-class life.