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Dreams and Memory Consolidation Essay Is there a link between dreaming and the processes of memory consolidation? Dreams and Memory Consolidation Essay introduction??
Wesley College, Melbourne Date: Body of text…………………………………………………………………………2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………. We will write a custom essay sample on Ib Extended: This wide review of literature on the debate from the last three decades ultimately leads to the conclusion that there is definitely a clear link between the processes of memory consolidation and dreaming, namely that dreaming is a by-product of ifferent types of memory consolidation processes in different stages of sleep, but the exact mechanisms by which this occurs needs more research to be fully understood.
Introduction Sleep is an extremely interesting phenomenon in which the mind almost completely departs from the usual realm of consciousness Foulkes, Many theories have been proposed over the years as to why we need sleep. Dreaming has been a source of fascination for many cultures over thousands of years, from primitive cultures to the ancient Greeks.
Dreaming, in particular, has also been of particular interest to psychologists, beginning with Freud and Jung, who believed that dreams were a window into the subconscious and could be used to analyse the character of a person Gross et al.
Most human behaviours have been shown to serve some kind of evolutionary purpose, so it makes sense that dreaming must have a function. With the discovery of rapid eye movement REM sleep, and importantly, its association with dreaming, a large body of research has focused on determining the exact functional purpose of REM sleep and dreaming.
This essay will ask the question: The essay will positively argue this research question, by providing more recent theories about different types of memory, non-REM sleep, connections between different brain structures, and the content of dreams. Secondly, it will review what the different stages of sleep are, and look at studies which indicate that episodic memory is consolidated during non-REM sleep, while semantic memory is consolidated during REM sleep.
The essay will examine the role of the stress hormone cortisol, the level of which rises during REM sleep, and which impairs interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus.
This is relevant because episodic memory is stored in the neocortex, while semantic memory is stored in the hippocampus. The essay will examine how the content of dreams in all stages fits in with the argument that the neocortex, which stores episodic memory, actively consolidates memory during non-REM sleep, while the hippocampus, which stores semantic memory, actively consolidates memory during REM sleep.
For the most part, this large body of research provides a compelling argument for the proposition that sleep plays a role in memory consolidation and that dreaming is a by-product of this process. However, this view is not universally accepted. Therefore, this essay will also examine the criticisms of this theory, particularly in relation to the apparent lack of positive findings in some studies as well as issues with the methodology used by many of the studies supporting the theory.
It will examine an alternative theory, namely that the function of REM sleep is merely to aid recovery from deep sleep, and attempt to relate this to the topic. Finally, the essay will explore the research into how recent brain imaging studies are providing mounting evidence in support for memory consolidation theory.
The essay concludes that sleep definitely does play a role in memory consolidation, but that more research is required to fully understand the role it plays.
Memory consolidation Understanding what memory is has been described from behavioural as well as biological perspectives.
Tulving considered memory as consisting of two different types, namely episodic and semantic memory. Episodic memory which is also called declarative memory is memory of the past and of specific events, including exactly when and where they occurred Tulving Payne and Nadel argue that the brain processes and shares episodic and semantic information in parallel to consolidate memory.
Many neuroscientists have investigated the structures and functional mechanisms that the brain uses to record and consolidate memories.
They argue that the structure of the hippocampus suggests that it is well suited to episodic and long term memory as its circuitry is akin to a partial map, which requires other pieces of information to complete the pattern.
For example, memory of walking down a street requires specific information about what buildings or trees look like to complete the picture McClelland et al. On the other hand, the structure of the neocortex suggests it stores information as overlapping elements which are strengthened by similarities between them, and controls sensory perception, motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought and language.
This detail, such as the appearance buildings or trees, is drawn from semantic knowledge as the events are ecalled Tulving This model proposes that memories are initially registered in the brain neurons and then stored temporarily in the hippocampus and cortical regions of the brain.
Physiologically, this is explained as the reactivation and strengthening of neural connections encoding these memories.
They documented five stages of sleep by examining 33 adults over a period of nights of undisturbed sleep by using EEG scans and other qualitative data. The authors found that the stages of sleep underwent regular cyclical variations throughout the night, alternating between REM and nREM.
The periods of REM sleep became longer as the night progressed.
When they first wrote their study, they proposed that REM sleep is the only stage of sleep in which dreams occur, and because of this, REM sleep has been the centre of most dream research until very recently.
But evidence has emerged to suggest that dreams do occur during nREM sleep. For instance, in a study by Foulkes on eight males between the ages of 17 and 27, the participants were awakened during various stages of sleep over 57 non-consecutive nights of sleep.Writing an extended essay is an obligatory part of many English tests, including ACT and SAT.
IB students should learn how to deal with this type of assignment if they want a high score. The article is a collection of definition, outline, topics, and examples of the college extended essays. I'm doing my extended essay topic on psychology, but I need a proper research question!!
T_T Someone please help! I'm doing my essay on dreams, but I don't have a proper thesis or a focused enough research question in fact, I have no idea what I am doing at all, so can someone please offer help. An extended essay is one of the most terrible tasks a student can face with.
It is a type of a research paper with a deep and clear analysis of the topic. The standard scheme of Introduction, Body, and Conclusion lays in its basis.
No diploma is awarded if a candidate fails to submit either the TOK essay or TOK presentation, or receives grade E for either the extended essay or theory of knowledge. IB Diploma Core Requirements - Awarded Points Matrix.
Required for essays in from abstract to. Dreams and Memory.8 Abstract This essay will pose the question “is there is Bibliography sleep deprivation Further Research IB Biology Extended Essay. Ib memes extended essay abstract. I'm doing my extended essay topic on psychology, but I need a proper research question!!
T_T Someone please help! I'm doing my essay on dreams, but I don't have a proper thesis or a focused enough research question in fact, I have no idea what I am doing at all, so can someone please offer help.