Intangible concerns of loneliness and depression in ageing population essay

Privacy Aging and Mental Health Aging and Mental Health considers the biological, psychological and social aspects of aging as they relate to mental health. It emphasizes the various strategies, therapies and services which may be directed at improving the mental health of the elderly. Definition of Aging and Mental Health With improved diet, physical fitness, public health, and health care, more people are reaching retirement age but not necessarily retiring and they are in better physical and mental health than in the past. Trends show that the prevalence of chronic disability among older people is declining.

Intangible concerns of loneliness and depression in ageing population essay

Manual of the loneliness scale. A hard copy is to obtain from the authors. Acknowledgement The Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports financially supported the revision of this manual. See for a program overview De Jong Gierveld The scale is available for scientific research programs, under the following conditions: The source of the scale should be mentioned, i.

The scale may be used in survey research by means of face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews, self-administered mail questionnaires, as well as in electronic data collection. The scale is designed for application in scientific survey research only. It should not be applied as a diagnostic test in an individual context e.

De schaal is ontwikkeld voor gebruik in wetenschappelijk onderbouwd vragenlijstonderzoek. Het gebruik van de scores in dit soort onderzoek is bijvoorbeeld gericht op het berekenen van een gemiddelde score over honderden of duizenden ondervraagden.

Hoewel de instrumenten zorgvuldig zijn ontworpen en veel onderzoek is verricht naar hun bruikbaarheid is niet bekend of ze ook toepasbaar zijn voor het bepalen van het al dan niet eenzaam zijn van afzonderlijke personen.

Daarom is het niet toegestaan deze instrumenten voor zo'n toepassing te gebruiken. We recommend that the scale be presented somewhere in the middle of the interview or questionnaire; that is, at a moment when a considerable degree of self-disclosure from the respondents may be expected.

Ideally, questions about characteristics of the respondents' networks of social relationships should precede the scale items. The scale consists of 11 items; six are formulated negatively and five are formulated positively.

The items are sometimes preceded by a short introduction. English Dutch Please indicate for each of the 11 statements, the extent to which they apply to your situation, the way you feel now.

Please, circle the appropriate answer. Wilt u van elk van de volgende uitspraken aangeven in hoeverre die op u, zoals u de laatste tijd bent, van toepassing is?

Omcirkel het antwoord dat op u van toepassing is. Ora seguono 11 affermazioni sulle sue attuali esigenze. Vuole dirmi, per ognuna di queste, se la condivide e quanto? When face-to-face interviews or telephone interviews are conducted, it may be sufficient to offer the respondents only the answers "yes", "more or less" and "no".

In self-administered questionnaires an example may be added between the introduction and the items: The following statement serves as an example: If you experience these feelings in exactly the same way, please circle the answer yes! Stel, u herkent deze gevoelens ook precies zo bij uzelf, dan omcirkelt u het antwoord Ja!

Add the example item, add the possible answers and circle yes! The model is based on the so-called cognitive theoretical approach to loneliness. Characteristic of this approach to loneliness is the emphasis on the discrepancy between what one wants in terms of interpersonal affection and intimacy, and what one has; the greater the discrepancy, the greater the loneliness.

Background characteristics such as marital status, sex and living arrangementsdescriptive characteristics of the social network, number and frequency of contacts with network members, and personality and health were identified as important loneliness-provoking factors.

Other factors were found to be of crucial importance as well, such as social norms and values, expectations of support associated with certain relationships, and the positive or negative evaluation of the network of relationships-as-realized.

In this approach, loneliness is seen as a subjective experience and is, as such, not directly related to situational factors. Loneliness, or subjective social isolation, is defined as a situation experienced by the participant as one where there is an unpleasant or inadmissible lack of quality of certain relationships.

The importance of social perceptions and evaluations of one's personal relationships is emphasized. Loneliness includes situations where the number of existing relationships is smaller than desirable or acceptable, as well as situations where the intimacy wished for has not been realized De Jong Gierveld, In developing the scale, the researchers started with a content analysis of accounts written by lonely people about their experiences.

Next, items derived from the accounts were tested in a pilot investigation under 59 women and men. A revised set of items was included in a questionnaire which was administered by means of semi-structured face-to-face interviews with women and men.

Because this item scale was found to primarily measure severe feelings of loneliness, changes were made. An item unidimensional scale was developed on the basis of 30 items, using data of unemployed, disabled, and employed men and women.

Targeting social isolation in older people is a growing public health concern. The proportion of older people in society has increased in recent decades, and it is estimated that approximately 25% of the population will be aged 60 or . Methods. We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood. With an aging population choosing to retire at earlier ages, both Social Security and Medicare face considerable shortfalls. Eliminating the embedded incentives in public and private pension plans, which discourage work beyond some point, and enacting policies that prolong the retirement age may be desirable, ceteris paribus.

The data were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire given to the respondents at the end of a face-to-face interview. The homogeneity of the scale varies across studies, with Loevingers' H typically in the 0. The scale is discussed in Shaver and Brennan Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues Dealing with Drug or Alcohol Addiction and Co-Occurring Mental Health Problems When you have both a substance abuse problem and a mental health issue such as depression, bipolar disorder, or anxiety, it is called a co-occurring disorder or dual diagnosis.

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Intangible concerns of loneliness and depression in ageing population essay

This article is based on an interview with Bill Rogers, Adjunct Professor of Education at Griffith University, on his most recent work, 'I get by with a little help colleague support in schools'.

A "general statement" "intended to develop a unified conceptual scheme for theory and research in the social sciences" was published by nine USA social scientists in Theory was to be based on a "theory of action" in which "the point of reference of all terms is the action of an individual actor or collective of actors".

In later life, loneliness is linked closely to other experiences associated with ageing, such as loss of family and friends and declining health and income, as well as more recent socio-demographic trends such as longevity, living alone for longer, relationship breakdown, and changes to families and communities (Age UK Oxfordshire , .

Motivated by these concerns, the latest GDI Working Paper “What are the relationships between ageing, depression, non-communicable diseases and disabilities in South Africa?” focuses on the determinants of depression among the over 60s in South Africa.

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