Back to the Rise and Fall of the Empire The beginning of the 20th century saw developments in industry which were concentrated in Catalunya and Basque, while the rest of the country remained agricultural. Much of the land however was unproductive and Spain struggled to produce enough food.
It won the Premio Espejo award in Inhe won the prestigious non-fiction prize, the Premio Espejo, with the Spanish version of Spain: Dictatorship to Democracywritten with his one-time pupil, the brilliant Spanish historian Juan Pablo Fusi.
In it, he was able to demonstrate his sensitivity to the shifting preoccupations and kaleidoscopic variety of Spanish popular culture. Away from Spain, he displayed a comparable breadth of outlook in English Fox Hunting: A Historyco-written with Sara. He was born in Bath and grew up in Dorset, the son of Reginald, a village school teacher, and Marion nee Grahamwho worked in the local post office.
Raymond went to Brockenhurst school, in neighbouring Hampshire.
As a child, and in common with the customs of the time, he had to read the Bible aloud every evening, a habit that may well account for the magisterial narrative sweep of his style.
His time in Germany at the height of the Third Reich left him with a fierce abhorrence of authoritarianism in any form. On his return to Britain, he won a scholarship to Christ Church, Oxford, where he read modern history.
Inhe graduated with a first and immediately tried to join the army. Throughout his life, despite his slightly stooped posture, he always gave the impression of being strong and something of a dare-devil — a reputation that was consolidated when he started to ride to hounds.
However, he suffered from a rare heart condition and was rejected for military service on medical grounds. He spent the rest of the second world war teaching history and English at Wellington college, Berkshire. The return of the regular staff left him unemployed: His knowledge of German inclined him at first to present himself as a medievalist, and although elected to a fellowship inhe quickly decided to work in Sweden.
A friendship with a young Swedish woman whom he met while cycling in Germany developed into a love affair. He visited Sweden and learned Swedish. A by-product of that relationship was that his earliest publications were on government finance in late 18th-century Sweden.
He wrote a life of the early 17th-century king Gustavus Adolphus, the manuscript of which, it was rumoured among his students, had been left on a railway station platform somewhere in northern Europe. Raymond himself claimed to have burned it in the 80s.
Three years later, the entire British community of scholars who devote their efforts to Spain gathered in Oxford to pay homage to the man who taught and inspired them. Collectively, they had produced a volume on Elites and Power in Modern Spain, published by Oxford University Press and presented to him in a specially bound copy.
Recognition and tributes abounded in Spain and culminated, inwith the Prince of Asturias award. In his packed lectures in Spain, as in his droll interviews in the press and on radio and television, he would mask penetrating comment with a hammy English accent.
It was a trick that he would often use: It was both entertaining and lulled any interlocutor into being more revealing than perhaps intended.
Raymond was an amiable and eccentric nonconformist, a man fascinated by ideas but not tied by ideologies, a sceptic but full of enthusiasm for Spain. He managed to excite the affection of his pupils, his colleagues and, above all, his readers.
Sara died inand their artist son, Matthewdied in Raymond is survived by two other sons, Adam and Charles, and a daughter, Laura.Civil wars in the 19th century and in the early 20th century tended to be short; civil wars between and lasted on average one and half years.
The state itself formed the obvious center of authority in the majority of cases, and the civil wars were thus fought for control of the state. Encyclopedia Britannica, The newly reunified United States experienced a tenuous peace following the American Civil War.
It was a period characterized by great technological advances, but also by increased political, economic, and social polarization. The country however made economic progress during this dictatorship, with money being invested in the right places, though the Wall Street crash of caused a downturn in Spain's economy.
In , unrest in the military caused the king to sack the General dictator, Primo, and call an election. The emergence of modern Europe, – Economy and society.
The 16th century was a period of vigorous economic expansion. This expansion in turn played a major role in the many other transformations—social, political, and cultural—of the early modern age.
Major Wars and Conflicts of The 20th Century The 20th Century was the bloodiest, costliest century of warfare in human history. Two world wars, and a large number of major revolutions, along with significant social, political, and economic upheavals made the period from to of great importance in a historical and military sense.
The Spanish Civil War broke out in after more than a century of social, economic and political division. Half a million people died in this conﬂict between and